This book synthesises the current knowledge of global change processes and impacts in Africa. Climate and environmental change impacts in Africa are shown to be mostly negative and severe. Africa’s vulnerability to these changes is inversely related to the continent’s adaptive capacity. Paleoclimate records show that Africa has experienced extreme, abrupt droughts on millennial to decadal timescales, and other such vagaries of climate and weather are continuing today, with adverse impacts on human societies and ecosystems. The ongoing cliamte change is likely to exert substantial stress on African species and ecosystems, and may result in appreciable local, regional and global extinctions. Climate change is anticipated to adversely affect most African regions through warming and drying resulting in decreased carbon stocks in some regions, and the continent’s potential to sequester carbon may be offset by increased and unfavourable ladn use conversion. Copublished by East African Educational Publishers, Ltd. in Kenya & Uganda, Ujuzi Books, Ltd. in Tanzania and START in the USA.