Half of the world’s population lives within 100 kilometers of a coastline. Coastal regions support the lives and livelihoods of millions, and about a billion people (largely in developing countries) rely on fish as their principal source of animal protein. Nonetheless, coastal areas continue to be subjected to a diversity of stresses, including unplanned and haphazard settlement patterns, environmental degradation, including severe levels of pollution, coastal inundation due to sea-level rise and increase in recurrence and intensity of cyclones and storm surges. Both the utility and vulnerability of coastal areas require that coastal environments be protected and sustainably managed. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) provides a framework for sustainably managing the coast by supporting spatial and sectoral integration and coordination of activities in the coastal space. This issue brief explores prevailing knowledge on the policy nexus between coastal management and coastal adaptation, with special emphasis on the ICZM framework in promoting the health of marine and coastal ecological systems.